BHAGAT SINGH

: BHAGAT SINGH.

: 28.9.1907

: 23.3.1931

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HISTORY :

Contributions Bhagat Singh was among the prominent revolutionaries who shaped the base of a grand national movement. Following his execution, on March 23, 1931, the supporters and followers of Bhagat Singh regarded him as a "Shaheed", "martyr".

Life

Bhagat Singh was born on 27 September 1907 at Banga in Lyallpur district (now Pakistan) to Kishan Singh and Vidya Vati. From his early childhood, Bhagat Singh was imbued with the family's spirit of patriotism. At the time of his birth, his father Kishan Singh was in jail. His uncle, Sardar Ajit Singh, was a great freedom fighter and established the Indian Patriots' Association. He was well-supported by his friend Syed Haidar Raza, in organizing the peasants against the Chenab Canal Colony Bill. Ajit Singh had 22 cases against him and was forced to flee to Iran. Bhagat Singh was considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of Indian Nationalist Movement. He became involved with numerous revolutionary organizations.

Kishan Singh enrolled Bhagat Singh in Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School. At a very young age, Bhagat Singh started following Non-Cooperation Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi. Bhagat Singh had openly defied the British and had followed Gandhi's wishes by burning the government-sponsored books. Following the violent incidents of "Chauri Chaura", Gandhi called for the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation movement. Unhappy with the decision, Bhagat Singh, isolated himself from Gandhi's nonviolent action and joined the Young Revolutionary Movement.

He was pursuing B.A. examination when his parents planned to have him married. He vehemently rejected the suggestion and said that, if his marriage was to take place in Slave-India, my bride shall be only death." Singh later joined the Hindustan Republican Association, a radical group, later known as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He returned to his home in Lahore after assurances from his parents that he would not be compelled to get married. He established contact with the members of the Kirti Kisan Party and started contributing regularly to its magazine, the "Kirti". In March 1926, the Naujawan Bharat Sabha was formed with Bhagat Singh, as its secretary.

On 30 October 1928, an all-parties procession, led by Lala Lajpat Rai, marched towards the Lahore railway station to protest against the arrival of the Simon Commission. Stopping the procession, police made a lathi charge at the activists. The confrontation left Lala Lajpat Rai with severe injuries and also led to his death. As an avenge to the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh and his associates plotted the assassination of Scott, the Superintendent of Police, believed to have ordered the lathi charge. The revolutionaries, mistaking J.P. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police, as Scott, killed him instead. Bhagat Singh quickly left Lahore to escape his arrest. To avoid recognition, he shaved his beard and cut his hair, a violation of the sacred tenets of Sikhism.

In response to the formulation of Defence of India Act, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association planned to explode a bomb inside the assembly premises, where the ordinance was going to be passed. On April 8 1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb onto the corridors of the assembly and shouted 'Inquilab Zindabad!' The bomb was not meant to kill or injure anyone and therefore it was thrown away from the crowded place. Following the blasts both Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt courted arrest

Trial and Death

The British authority, while interrogating them, came to know about their involvement in the murder of J. P. Saunders. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were charged with the murder. Singh admitted to the murder and made statements against the British rule during the trial.

While in jail, Bhagat Singh found that the authorities were following a dual policy in treating the prisoners. The criminals of foreign origin were treated better than Indian political prisoners. As a protest, he along with some fellow prisoners declared to "go on hunger strike". The strike continued for over a month and finally the British had to accept before their conditions.

Bhagat Singh along with other revolutionaries found responsible for the Assembly bombing and murder of Saunders. On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev. Singh was cremated at Hussainiwala on banks of Sutlej river.

SHAHEED BHAGAT SINGH JANMA DIVAS

Bhagat Singh was born on September 28, 1907. His father was also a revolutionary, so patriotism flowed in his blood. By the time, he completed his secondary education, Bhagat Singh knew everything about the revolutionaries of his family. At the- age of thirteen, Bhagat Singh left school and joined the freedom movement.

At that time, there was a powerful anti-foreign cloth movement in the country. Bhagat Singh took part in this movement and wore only Khadi. He would collect foreign clothes and burn them. Bhagat Singh had no faith in non-violence and non-cooperation movement and believed that armed revolution was the only practical way of winning freedom. He went to Lahore and formed a group called 'Naujavan Bharat Sabha' which consisted of young Indians and was appointed its Secretary. Here he was introduced to Chandrasekhar Azad, another young revolutionary, with whom he formed a great bond. All these days he had been a hero of the Sikhs; he now became a national hero.

In February 1928, the Simon Commission, headed by Sir John Simon, came to India to decide how much freedom and responsibility could be given to the people of India. But there was no Indian on the committee, so people decided to boycott it. Wherever the committee went, people protested with black flags, shouting “Simon go back”. One such procession that was lathi charged was led by Lala Lajpat Rai. A British police officer hit Lalaji on the chest. Lalaji died after some days. To averige Lalaji's death, Bhagat Singh and two other revolutionaries Sukhdev and Rajguru shot dead Saunders, the police officer responsible. The three were arrested later for throwing a bomb in the Delhi Assembly Hall and sentenced to death. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged a day before the appointed day on March 23rd, 1931. He has rightfully been given the title of Shaheed-e-Azam (King of Martyrs).

Quotes

  • "Give me blood and I will give you (new) freedom!" - Subhas Chandra Bose
  • “All powers are within you, you can do anything and every thing” - Swami Vivekananda
  • “First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win” - Mahatma Gandhi
  • “In India we only read about death, sickness, terrorism, crime” - A. P. J. Abdul Kalam